(Traducido por Google)
Contents: Chapter One: 1. Decontextualisation / 1.2. Dictionary definitions / 1.3. The art towards
decontextualization / 1.4. Decontextualized works. Chapter Two: 2. Duchamp. The fierce chess / 2.1. The
inspiration apprentice / 2.2. Art as idea. Chapter Three: 3. Malevich. The cubo-futurism / 3.1. Birth alogismo /
3.2. Cubist work versus cow naturalist. Chapter Four: 4. De Chirico. The eternal symbol of art / 4.1.
Metaphysical thought / 4.2. The metaphorical classicism with double bottom. Conclusion. Index notes.
Until the nineteenth century the painting was considered as a presence, she was, at that time was the
traditional painting that told stories or symbolically represented the world. The journey between vision and
the word was what gave meaning to the painting.
Later, the Romantics set apart and said that art was a process in which the artist intervened, reflection, the
viewer and the work as a medium of art, under a deep anti-academic spirit, questioning even the teaching
itself, for example : if what is represented was dead, had to be dead, as a logical consequence of these
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the paint loses its major themes such as portrait and
landscape to increasingly focus on herself by techniques and language, to the point that the last major theme
of the painting before the call, right or wrong, «abstraction» is the painting itself. That is why we see so many
repetitions of works as the artist in his studio and artist with his model, the example of this can be found,
among others, in the painting of Courbet.
When in the nineteenth century, the artists decided to become independent of the narrative, the word and the
sign down, color, space and matter were to be significant by themselves, some avant-garde artists, in my
opinion, performed works very interesting in this respect to the reflection of the paint in the painting, not a
text, or poetic, or on theory, but on the painting itself.
I think this, of which there are several examples given in a very evident in people of Duchamp, Malevich and
De Chirico, and try to explain later, and see how they made their reflection of the paint in the paint, changing
the language of art and nature, giving it its own identity and becoming appearance in concept through
contextualization of the artwork.
1 The decontextualization.
The term «de» is frequently used in both the written word and the spoken however, is not reflected as such in
any dictionary, so you can say that this is a clear example of how our language is a living thing and changing
that is closely related to the corresponding time, ie, to which we are living, then as a mixing acojámosla
enriching, which also helps us to determine where we evolved and why we do not speak Latin.
1.2 Definitions Dictionary
To better support the above we see some dictionary definitions:
Contextualize: credited with text.
Build: DTP, layout and union respective parties together make a whole. Setup man’s body indicating his
complexion and some inner qualities.
Context: order or tissue composition of certain works, tangle tangle or union of things that are intertwined
and interwoven. Discourse series Fig. tissue narrative thread of the story.
Des: prefix denoting negation or inversion of the meaning of the word to which it is prefixed, as distrust,
undo, deprivation, as outspoken; outside: as embezzlement, dishonor. Sometimes it involves denial, as in
With these definitions from the dictionary we made a new word to our needs and we use, in this case,
applied to artistic creation to describe concisely how linguistically express a fact and thus understand better,
then I think more simple and appropriate to use the word context and precede the prefix des as investment
meaning of context, to say that something is dislodged or removed from the site of its own and original, its
context, and why we use the word descontextualizar without the term surprise us at all to explain the
composition of the painting there is an element that disturbs the aesthetic.
1.3 The art towards decontextualization
If we make a brief historical summary of the early twentieth century we see that in 1912, there was the
development of an intense creative activity, Braque, Picasso and Derain, exposed in the major European
capitals. Picasso made his first collage and this year we discover the art of papier – Colle was a decisive step
in the introduction of color cubist space unmodified.
Braque first used industrial templates for registration and all this adds to the color-field using sand and
sawdust, Picasso made his first guitar dimensional construction techniques, all of which experienced
Malevich painting and joined her later influenced by them during his trip to Paris. Meanwhile, Marcel
Duchamp organized the exhibition of the Section d’Or in collaboration with Apollinaire and Picabia being
published the only issue of the magazine that bears his name.
The Russian avant-garde at the time also fell behind in their artistic approaches and creates a powerful line
art as Cubo-Futurism was. If you look at Italy, was present then the emergence of values ranging from
Futurism to the metaphysical and magical realism to the plastic values.
All this effervescent artistic activity that took place at the beginning of the twentieth century would be marked
by the reflection of the paint in the paint and have signs and presence contradictory language so often
questioned in the artwork. These artists to achieve their aims sometimes relied on language and gesture in
used and other contextualization of the work and to quote Apollinaire practicing «aesthetics of surprise.»
There are numerous examples in the paint that we demonstrate these facts, but we will focus our attention
only on the three aforementioned artists: Duchamp, De Chirico and Malevich as representatives of this
period of art and a work of just analyzing each to observe more clearly and from a diversity of approaches
attempted to shift the focus of the art, using a different language, giving this another function and other
The three artists were from the same era, and used figuration questioned traditional painting from traditional
painting, Duchamp, the «decoupling», Malevich, with «the alogismo» and De Chirico by a «double bottom
metaphorical classicism» as they themselves have said. So the similarities between the three works chosen
as we are so revealing their differences.
When we talk about contextualization in contemporary work we refer to works within the framework of the
painting have an element that disturbs the order of the table, as we have said previously, thereby altering its
meaning and therefore the order of the narrative .
The normal ratio of paint between the visual and the narrative is that they complement the text with the
image, to what we would call contextualize or credit with texts that image, in some cases breaks this
complementary relationship, looking for the absolute purity of the image, the pictorial sign, removing all
references in words, even the title of the work, like many painters, «Untitled», «composition», which is the only
For Duchamp, a different formulation occurs which breaks the connection between the image and the text
elements using them as ironic rupture. Malevich, he toils in a cubist painting and introduces two elements in
it triggers, a violin and a cow completely naturalistic and De Chirico instead puts a classical statue head of
1.4 The works decontextualized
The examples below you can see I found very fortunate to show this fact clearly and effectively, despite
being diametrically opposed, both in the subjects, as in the procedures, but all of them make use of
«reflection paint in the paint «and the concept of» art as idea «which had already been announced by
But most remarkable of all, is that all three are served the traditional story of the painting to question it,
adding one or more elements of rupture. The works chosen are:
«Avoir le soleil dans l’apprenti» by Duchamp in 1914. Ink and pencil on lined paper, 27, 3 x 17, 2 cm.
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Collection, Louise and Walter Arensberg.
Cow and Violin «, painted by Malevich in 1913. Oil on wood. Belongs to the State Russian Museum in St.
Petersburg. 48.8 x 25.8 cm.
And «Guillaume Apollinaire ritrato» work of Giorgio de Chirico, 1914. Oil on canvas. Milano, Collezione
Privata. 34 x 27 cm.
2. Duchamp. The fierce chess
Much has been said about the person and work of Marcel Duchamp and his influence on art. The legend that
has been created around the figure has a lot to do with your life is taking. A man who never wanted to be
caught leaving to «make art» and that «only does everything as if he cared to kill time.» Marcel, that «to see
breaking one of the» ways maliques «glass, before 1914, yells at last!, As if not expecting more than the
moment when his work was going to disappear,» Marcel, who plays chess with fury «, hoping one day to
know the entire development of the game from the first movement,» (1) focuses and directs all its efforts to
establish the basis of a new reality.
«It was the time» – Duchamp himself writes (letter to S. Stauffer of19 August 1959) – in which hoped to
achieve a complete decoupling between what is written and drawn to extend the reach of both (as far as
possible the title Descriptive actually deleting the concept «title»). (2)
2.1. The apprentice of inspiration.
«In January 1914, using ruled paper, Marcel Duchamp made a little drawing of a cyclist-worked, his head
bent over the handlebars, climbing a hill. Below the drawing, an open-ended enigmatic phrase:» take the
apprentice the sun «. According clarify much later Duchamp himself, in the letter to S. Stauffer, above,» have
the apprentice in the sun «is the caption of a drawing depicting a cyclist climbing a hill ethical reduced to a
line «. But how justified the use of a phrase so discordant with the drawing that serves legend …?. What we
experience, input, is just a certain sense of discomfort with the disconnect between the visual and the verbal
phrase. And yet, and therein lies the core of the problem, which causes the feeling of discomfort is that the
drawing of the small rider and legend we are given as a unit. Spontaneously we seek, then, a relationship
between the two planes. But that’s exactly what we fail to find: a possible link between the drawing and the
phrase. Torn between two planes, our understanding is blocked, and the end result will most likely perplexity.
This phrase each viewer could interpret differently, is an enigma, as isolated sentence would make more
sense, but in the composition in the tissue that tells the story does not fit is misplaced and can not establish
any link between the drawing and the phrase thus producing our understanding not because we are used to
looking at pictures accredit texts, recalled here Magrit brilliant essay on the «This is not a pipe» that Foucault
When we contemplate what we are forced to think about the mental process devised by the artist. This leads
us to reflection and preparation before his execution, not the mere appearance that shows at a glance.
2.2. Art as idea.
«Decoupling» as Duchamp called it shows us what we might call art as idea, away from the surface, changing
the nature of art from a morphological point to a function, then to be leaving and becoming appearance
concept. So instead of calling the play by the name that the image is telling us, this would be: ethical cyclist,
cyclist climbing a hill or training, puts a text in the work itself that has nothing to do with the image of the
rider, «the apprentice of the sun».
This formula, used against everything established, seeks new languages and ways of understanding and it is
a philosophical treatise tucked into a small lined paper with great economy of means plastics, but with a
complicated process prior to the play, so I could call «art as idea».
The work of Marcel Duchamp, this manara, ceases to be painting in the traditional sense of it, no longer
something to «look» automatically becomes something to «think» and establishes a theory to art criticism, the
work itself is not important, what matters is the process of performing the work, the mental act. When you
understand the process, understand the work and so we see that the effort made by the rider to climb the
slope is that of a man who represents the «apprentice inspiration» which strives to apprehend this life
unintelligible not only art but life itself is struggling, so lost in it that needs to keep up to understand
something of this social structure increasingly difficult, finding his true identity as «being-paint».
In my opinion. What was intended to employment Duchamp-ironic dissociation was conveying a message
that was not in the work itself, was in the same dissociation is representing art’s liberation, its nature and
function, throwing an infinite space : the human condition.
3. Malevich. The cubo-futurism
In 1912, Malevich painting had evolved towards Cubism, aesthetics then prevailed in Paris. Malevich Cubism
comment about this: «all the force was not to capture the fullness of the object, but, on the contrary, spraying
and its decomposition into the component elements were essential while pictorial contrasts. The object was
seen under his intuitive aspect … «(4)
In an effort to transcend cubism, Malevich along with other intellectuals of the time were interested in the
idea of an abstract language, using unusual words. And in the summer of 1913 «drawn up and published a
manifesto against» artistic poverty «, and grouped the forces of poetry and the arts in order to: 1 destroy the
pure, clear, honest, sound Russian, weakened and distorted by the languages of the holy men of criticism
and literature.’s unworthy of the great Russian people!
2 Destroy outdated movement of thought that follows the law of causality, good sense blunt, symmetrical
logic, and provide creative vision for-real world of new men.
3 Destroy elegance, lightness and beauty of the artists and writers and prostitutes flights, non-stop throwing
new works in words, in books, on the web and on paper … «(5)
3.1. Birth alogismo
In this environment of change and subversion of language partly what were his later works, and Russian
Cubo-Futurism gives way to alogismo as a direct result of Cubism, writing these words: «The reason is a
string of inmate for the artist: therefore, I want all the artists out of their minds. » (6)
Malevich thought especially Cubism and, to a lesser extent, Futurism were too reasonable, pictorial
compositions showing the visible and invisible object represented, or full, and publish these phrases: «the
supreme artistic work is written when the intellect is absent. Excerpt from a work like this:
-I just ate veal leg.
‘It’s awfully hard to adapt to the good after having gone through Siberia.
-Envy always telegraph pole. Pharmacy.
‘Obviously, many think it is absurd mistakes. Enough simply to light two matches and put a sink. «(7)
When applied alogismo Malevich in his paintings is to reflect on the contrast cubist and traditional naturalist
and as he himself has said on numerous occasions, to give another sense purest spiritual and art, as a lever
against everything established. «It absurd set our time in the old ways of the past «(8). «Today the world’s
intuition system changes our green world of flesh and blood, there is a new economic order of assembly of
the depths of our creative brain to perform the further plan of its forward motion at infinity, in lies the
philosophy of the modern world on which creators should move today. » (9)
I have no reason to doubt the word of Malevich, or his intentions for his own work, once read his writings.
However, I can not agree with the opinion of Álvaro Delgado-Gal, Professor of Logic, recently when he
writes, «after Malevich passed to cubism, but his heart is still turned on and plastic images that refer to the
stage romantically realistic . In «Cow and Violin» overlapped, to a fund in the line of painted by Picasso in
1910, a bovine quadruped with all of the law, a cow cow rigorously documentary excels in puerility
advertising claims of milk pasteurized cheese in portions or «the hamlet.» We are in 1913. «(10)
3.2. Cubist work versus cow naturalist.
In «Cow and Violin» from 1913, we find a «work too disconcerting to jump right into the frame Cubo-Futurist.
Malevich painted here a little cow almost verismo that highlighting on a background of geometric planes, it
appears above a violin stylized but perfectly recognizable. these two objects, represented in the table clash
violently with each other, because they belong to two domains of reality that do not usually coincide, because
they are represented simultaneously in spite of perspective and scale, and because are painted according to
two antithetical styles: on one hand the cow theme typical of realist painters and other rural inspiration, the
violin, the favorite subject of Cubist still life and object of urban culture. «(11)
«On the back of» Cow and Violin, «Malevich wrote in his own hand the comment:» Comparison of two formsalogical
a violin and a cow – as a battle against the logic of the natural order. The meaning and bourgeois
Again we have a decontextualized box, in the words of the author «alogical» and the surprise factor, again,
before our eyes. What kind of contemplation is that this requires us cubist naturalist with a cow heart?, It is
clear that the cow is not just acting as a literal reference to a real object, refers to the cubist paintings with
the added newsprint addition glued, namely chronic.
This element of rupture, subversive and ironic, alters the meaning of the painting, the traditional story of the
painting and Cubism understood as solid forms that suggest a world where you can not move, a mass
without space vitae.
In alogismo is the key element ironic that awakens the intellect by making them appear contrary approaches.
4. De Chirico. The eternal sign of art.
The times are not only defined by their obsessions and problems, but also for its fascinations, this would be
the case of De Chirico, a man fascinated by the idea of the eternal in the work of art, a fascination that talks
about the look. That sadly is attracted to review the past within the canon of Greek art.
With his work, De Chirico, wants to show a new historical birth, a new form of philosophy, a new morality for
habitation, past and present, but marked by the idea of modernity, a past that provides a separation, a veil
that allows you to see dimly the precipitous fall of man, his fall in the mirror of identity.
As he says, «in terms of» Sacred Science, who still believe in the masses, is nothing but the look of those
who have been released from the myths, a set of superstitions and such wonderful stories as implausible.
There in De Chirico, a return to classicism clearly. Giovanni Papini, wrote a series of stories entitled «daily
tragedy» expressing great idea, Chirico’s idea of inspiration as it has to go through rigorous and searching for
eternity. Intuition and emotion had learned from experience to be a disciplined and rigorous way to form what
we call a work of art. Chirico think that we should not cut the threads of the past, first because it is their
tradition and second because it would cut the engine. So always trying to capture that piece of eternity that
unites all the works of past and romanticism.
The value of the classic is eternal, for Chirico, something that makes artistic creation is not possible, hence
the eternal look back. Also his theory of art is essentially naturalistic, so copy classic drawings believing that
is where it is in essence.
«As the puzzle is immanent and lies in the materiality of things, you need to remove them, depriving the
subject of naturalistic appearance and reducing it to its essence in sign, to its spectrum, placing it in a
context where new meanings can play» . (14)
«The whole art of Giorgio De Chirico is developed from this insight: the thing stripped of its naturalistic
appearance becomes an eternal sign». (15)
4.1. The Metaphysical Thought
In Chirico’s writings, we read: «the work of art is metaphysical, in appearance, calm, but it seems that
something new must occur in the same serenity and other signs, besides the already manifest, will break into
the square of the fabric. This is a telltale symptom of the depth inhabited. » (15)
And regarding the metaphysical aspect of things, he says: «deducting anything we can conclude that there
are two aspects: one stream, we see that are almost always men in general, and the other spectral or
metaphysical that only few individuals be seen in moments of clairvoyance and metaphysical abstraction and
certain bodies hidden by a subject in which no sunlight penetrates, can not appear otherwise than under
artificial lights power as would, for example, X-rays ‘ (16)
And referring to the architecture: «The temples of Jupiter or Olympic virgin Palas, are the level of mortals.
Beneath his columns never has the impression of something monstrous, the ineffable and infinite, as among
the peoples less cunning and more confusing in the past, eg in Egyptian art or Gothic. The Greek temple is
at hand, it seems that one can pick it up and take it like a toy on the table. » (17)
The metaphysical aesthetic Chirico proclaiming extended beyond painting itself, was a totalizing project and
closely linked to Greek thought and in particular the Aristotelian.
The world view that had the Greek and the same theoretical organization of the senses was completely
different from ours. «Not only that, but metaphysically, sight and hearing were united by many ties, one of
them, the most important, by touch. Tact is as ubiquitous as substantiate sense and the senses, so good we
can speak of a tactualización both seen as the ear. » (18)
Aristotle is very explicit: it says in the third chapter of the second book of the treatise on the soul: «without the
sense of touch there are none of the other senses, while touch can exist without any of the others.» (19). And
below where it says: «Touch is an internal sense, the intermediary, as mentioned is the flesh, which is a
power composed of all the elements.» (20)
«Moreover, in the ninth chapter of the same book, says that the more differentiated sense of man from other
animals (being in one more perfectly than in these) is touching as it seeks to touch visually in full, the object
present. Moreover, the view will provide the details of the cold touch hot wet and dry, apart from informing
sensitive awareness captables not by touch: the colors, for example.’s view, therefore, continues or
complements the tasks of touch. supplement which, remember, is in turn tactualizado: every way, Aristotle
told us, are based on touch. » (22)
Chirico thinks exactly like when you type / how we read above) «the Greek temple is at hand, it seems that
one can pick it up and take it like a toy on the table.» We see how it highlights the idea of playing an eye
everything looks, becoming a touch eye.
When speaking of impressions Chirico in his philosophical essay on the mechanism of thought, goes even
further and says, «are true images, thoughts true that our body feels. Often these images or thoughts, we see
with our body and naturally not part of the field of brain representations, are stronger than those
representations and dominate.
The times when you feel or think through our body are probably the only times when our brain stops thinking
is fully occupied «hear» the thoughts of our body. «(23)
4.2. The classicism metaphorical double bottom
In the magazine «La Ronda (1919-1923), began with an editorial indicating Cardarelli» classicism
metaphorical double bottom «is essentially literary but has fully pictorial classicism with De Chirico and Carra
Savinio articles.» (24)
Precisely in the portrait of Guillaume Apollinaire, the head of the statue is a classic double bottom
metaphorical classicism, classicism more suitable for the realization of thought and artistic will. Chirico used
mannequin head as metaphysical, is a vehicle, a temporary path and a stranger to himself.
This skepticism, disbelief and this distance shows the statue in dark glasses, there is nothing but a
philosophical discourse that wants to find itself a metaphysical firm platform, facing the onslaught of a
changing world mutable and elusive, showing the emptiness of loss of identity, revealing a presence behind
What is essential in this work, is the presence of absence to which we refer and your starting point is in the
If, as we have seen, De Chirico, in Greek thought, surely would know that was looking for these touch, that
is, «the eye and hand», so why deny it in the paint and puts a plaster head dark glasses making it blinds our
eyes and yours?, why the destruction of something so sacred to him?; very easy, the painting is not only a
craft but a mental issue, therefore, and this is his reflection of the paint in the paint, suppresses the look, or
the hand, there is no meat, only is the primacy of the idea and not the perception of natural forms, then gaze
turned inward as the great poets reminding of old, who were also prophets, were blind.
The test works made under the pretext of decontextualization in art, are designed from very different points
of view, a «meta-ironic», «meta-futuristic» and «metaphysical» as they have been baptized several times
people Marcel Duchamp, Malevich and De Chirico.
But as we have seen, the three artists are from the same era and also the works chosen, three belonged to
the forefront and used figuration to challenge traditional painting from traditional painting and also links the
works having undergone that are out of context and that can be considered separate and distinct.
In my view, both «the alogismo», «dissociation» or «metaphorical classicism with double bottom», and have
made these works give a value exceeding its technique and its implications outside the plane-compositional
staying focused our interest in the contextualization of the work of art, in all three cases is and stands as a
true work of art.
(1) Vallier, Dora. The art inside. Page 91 / (2). Jiménez, José. Life as Random Page 164 / (3). Jiménez, José. Ibid. Page 161 / (4).
Faucherau, Serge. Malevich. Page 24 / (5) Faucherau, Serge. Ibid. Page 29 / (6) Ibid. Page 32 / (7) Ibid. Page 32 / (8) Malevich. The
new plastic realism. Page 30 / (9) Ibid. Page 98 / (10) Delgado-Gal, Alvaro. Daily 16. Cultures, Saturday, 24 – April 1993, p. VI / (11)
Faucherau, Serge. Malevich. Page 31 / (12) Ibid. Page 31 / (13) De Chirico, Giorgio. On the metaphysical art. Page 42 / (14) Baldacci,
Paolo. Theory and Method G. Chirico. Cahiers du Museum National d’Art Moderne. George Pompidou. No. 11-83, 1983 / (15) De
Chirico, Giorgio. On the metaphysical art. Page 42 / (16) Ibid. Page 41 / (17) Ibid. Page 60 / (18) Sources Lomba, Joaquin. Principles of
Greek philosophy. Page 120 / (19) Ibid. Page 127 / (20) Ibid. Page 129 / (21) Ibid. Page 129 / (22) Ibid. Page 130 / (23) De Chirico,
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